Please see “back surgery”, but note that spine surgery includes the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar as well as sacral areas. A neurosurgeon operates on all areas as well as inside the spinal cord (should an intrinsic tumor be found).
Many new techniques are presently being developed and are frankly worth looking at. Traditional treatment of a lumbar disc and routine problems are for the most part standardized, using a microscope or endoscope. Instrumentation however, changes yearly and frequently, so does the fusion devices. Totally absorbable plating and intrabody devices for the neck, arthroplasty where there is joint replacement, and even dynamic stabilization using flexible rods, are all options that need to be considered.
The future for spine surgery, specifically good results from an operation, never appeared better. However, as with all scientific endeavors, those that are looking for the “cutting edge” need to be cautious that their problem is unique, and that a dependable surgical technique does not already exist.